Double Trouble

One quirk that a Polish language learner needs to confront is the language’s fondness for repetition. There’s a number of expressions or grammatical constructions that come in doubles. Indeed, by saying certain words twice, you can actually change their meaning.

If you say dobra, then it means ‘okay’. The first time I heard a Pole saying dobra dobra, I thought it meant the same as the English expression ‘good good’, i.e. a way of saying that ‘all is good and in order’. However, when I started paying more attention to context, I realised that it means something quite different. I was once in a car with a Polish couple. The wife was nagging her husband about something and he said dobra dobra in a tone of voice that suggested he didn’t want to discuss it further. ‘Ah-hah’, I thought, ‘when a Pole says dobra dobra, it means something like ‘shut up about it okay‘. Indeed, the expression is often accompanied by a dismissive hand gesture that attempts to wave away whatever subject is being discussed.

It’s the same with zaraz. If you ask a Pole when a task will be completed and they reply zaraz, it means ‘soon’. If they reply zaraz zaraz, it doesn’t mean ‘sooner’. It means something like ‘why the hell are you asking?’

So I began to wonder if there was a rule: say a Polish word once and it means what it means. Say it twice and it means you’re annoyed and don’t want to discuss the topic further.

However, one time when I went mushroom picking, a friend pointed to a patch of forest and said that right now there were no mushrooms, but last week it was całkiem całkiem (lit. completely completely). I was waiting for a word to finish the sentence. Completely completely… what? But none came.

So całkiem całkiem breaks the annoyance rule. In this case, it does mean more of something.

Sometimes the issue is not that words are doubled, it’s the negation that is repeated. In English, the use of double negatives, as in ‘I didn’t say nothing’ is considered a mistake and sounds childlike or cartoonish. In Polish, on the other hand, nic nie powiedziałem is grammatically correct and double negatives are often used in poetry and songs. Indeed, the expression nic nie się stało (nothing didn’t happen) is practically the country’s motto!

It takes a lot of concentration to unlearn the English approach. Don’t the two negatives cancel each other out and become a positive? Only in some languages it seems. I read somewhere that Polish has a ‘negative mood’ allowing the speaker to pile on the negative expressions as if they were throwing logs onto a fire. I’ve even seen a sentence with a triple negative – nikt nic nie wie (nobody doesn’t know nothing) – which made me wonder if it’s possible to have a sentence with quadruple negatives? Is there record for a sentence in Polish with the most negative expressions?


Another Polish construction that involves repetition is the Polish equivalent of ‘neither…nor’. Expressions like ani ładna, ani mądra (neither pretty nor clever) repeat the determiner ani twice. When I first heard this word I thought it was a form of the name Anna. So Annie is pretty and Annie is clever… but should really we talk about Annie behind her back?

Then, there’s a more baffling set of expressions involving repetition, which, to a English native-speaker, sound particularly bizarre. The first time I read the expression dzień dzisiejszy, I was confused. Doesn’t it mean ‘today’s day’? Doesn’t Polish have a word for ‘today’? Do they need to differentiate today’s day from yesterday’s day… and tomorrow’s day?

Actually, they do.

I was even more surprised when I came across dzień wczorajszy and dzień jutrzejszy. I had learned the Polish words dzisaj (today), jutro (tomorrow) and wczoraj (yesterday) very early in my Polish education, so I knew that the language had words to separate today from tomorrow and yesterday. So why double up? And isn’t there a risk that this might become a trend? Will it soon be possible to say dzień piątejszy (Friday’s day) instead of piątek?

The only context in which this might be useful is when time travel is invented and we need to differentiate between ‘today in the future’ and ‘today in the present’. Perhaps the Polish language is gearing itself up for such times!

Another one I can’t get my head around is fakt faktem (lit. a fact is a fact). When Poles want to emphasise a statement, they say ‘fakt faktem…‘ What’s the purpose of stressing that a particular fact is a fact? Is there an expression fakt fikcją (a fact is a lie) too?

Actually, in the era of fake news, perhaps such an expression is necessary so that a speaker can announce whether they are sharing a fictitious fact or a factual fact. Along with the time travel thing, is this another case of Polish being ahead of the times?

Regardless, all this doubling up can be tiresome. Isn’t it just a case of adding unnecessary words for the sake of it? And just as if the language were deliberately trying to tease me, Polish has an expression to describe this very phenomenon: masło maślane (lit. butter butter).

Yet masło maślane is double bind.

If I want to complain that Polish has too many expressions in which words are repeated, I have to use an expression in which a concept is repeated, thereby reinforcing the problem!

Sometimes the Polish language just messes with your head…

…and there’s not nothing you can’t never do about it!

Thank God it’s Friday’s day!

15 thoughts on “Double Trouble

  1. I think you could say “nigdzie nigdy nikt nic nie wie” (Nowhere never nobody doesn’t know nothing = Nobody ever knows anything anywhere), so you could pile up and negate up to 5 things in one sentence (subject, action, time, place, object). To be honest, I actually had to check if I spelled these words correctly, because when I wrote them down all together they looked strange.

    As for dobra dobra, you can also think of it as “yeah, right” with a proper intonation that means “obviously not”. So double positive can mean a negative! But it can also mean a reluctant agreement with a hint of disbelief (yeah, whatever, let’s just drop it and move on).

    My partner, who is Scottish but his Polish is limited to “dwa czerwone wina, piwosokiem (piwo z sokiem) i gdzie jest automat biletowa” (yes, he can’t get past gendering inanimate objects) also likes “no tak”, another double positive (well yes).

    Last thing “dzien dzisiejszy” is not correct! Please don’t use it… Please…

    Liked by 2 people

      • I wouldn’t classify the Polish “no” as a positive. It has a lot of mixed uses – as a prompt (“no? i co?” – so? what then?), as an emphasis (“no nie!” – oh no!), as a stand-alone acknowledgment (“no!” – finally!), or even as a warning (“no no!” – watch it!). Useful little bugger, no nie? 😉

        Liked by 1 person

  2. “Masło maślane” means “buttery butter”. And it’s pleonasm. Like “equal halves”, “free gift” and so on. Usualy they are grammatically (and logically) incorrect. And we use masło maślane when someone is trying to say/explain something but actually is telling same thing over and over again.

    Liked by 1 person

    • dobra dobra is often used when somone is doubtful about another promise (‚i will definitley do my homework Mom!’ ‚Dobra dobra’).
      And also całkiem całkiem has diffrent melaniny as something quite good, quite
      And sonetowa studenta use ‚dzień dzisiejszy, jutrzejszy etc’ just to have more words in their papers xd

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Oh, we do quadruple negatives in one sentence once in a while. Take this „nikt nigdy nic nie wie” (nobody never doesn’t know nothing) for instance 🙂
    PS. What a cool blog! Just found it, will read it.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. About “fakt faktem”. Let me quote one of polish old comedy movies!
    “Sąd sądem, a sprawiedliwość musi być po naszej stronie” (court, court, but the justice must be ours!)
    Similarly, “fakt faktem” usually has a ale (but) in it – when facts suggest one thing but we don’t wholly agree. Example:
    A: Mamy zimę (it’s winter)
    B: Fakt faktem, ale pogoda mówi co innego (yeah, but the weather says otherwise)
    If no ale follows, that may mean that we were convinced by facts. Example:
    A: ostatnio sprzątaliśmy tu miesiąc temu (last time we cleaned up this place a month ago)
    B: fakt faktem, czysto tu nie jest (I agree, it’s not clean in here)

    Liked by 1 person

    • On “fakt faktem” and similar sayings (like aforementioned “sąd sądem”), you should treat it as a fixed phrase, or maybe a once-rhetorical device (it is both an alliteration and a rhyming consonance/assonance, and a repetition to boot!). Also, in typical use, you could find it similar to an English “That may be so” – you just expect to hear “…but” immediately after! In that sense, it’s even more rhetorically justified, as it gives you a stark contrast. Something may be a fact, I give you that, BUT…! 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

      • Okay. I get it now. So fakt faktiem’ refers to facts. Except when it’s followed by ‘ale’. In such cases, there are ‘alternative facts’ (to quote a Trump spokeperson), which contradict the usual facts. Something like that?


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